Glaucon isn’t convinced by the arguments in the previous discussion (357a)
b. Book II
The guy divides good things into around three categories: anything a on their own, some thing a beneficial in both by themselves and for its outcomes, and you may one thing an effective just for their outcomes (357b-d). Socrates metropolitan areas fairness in the class of anything good on their own and for its outcomes.
Glaucon renews Thrasymachus’ disagreement so you’re able to complications Socrates to defend fairness of the in itself as a given of just what originates from they (358b ff.). Glaucon brings a demonstration defending injustice: (i) fairness originates because the a damage ranging from poor those who are afraid that distress injustice are tough than doing it (358e-359a); (ii) some body operate justly since this is needed and you will unavoidable, very justice excellent just for their effects (facts of your own ring off Gyges’ ancestor, 359c-360d); (iii) new unjust person toward reputation for fairness try happy than just this new just person towards history of injustice (360d-362c).
Adeimantus develops Glaucon’s defense from injustice and you may attack towards fairness by asserting: brand new reputation of fairness is preferable to fairness itself, therefore the unfair person who can hold the reputation to be only was pleased compared to merely person; conversation of numerous ways that the latest unfair can obtain the new reputation to have justice (362d-366d).
Socrates is requested to defend fairness to have itself, perhaps not towards the reputation permits to own (367b). The guy offers to find fairness in the city very first and you will up coming so you can go-ahead because of the example to get fairness included (368c-369a). This approach allows a crisper judgment on concern from perhaps the merely body’s happier compared to the unjust person. Socrates initiate from the sharing this new origins away from governmental lifestyle and you may constructs an only city into the message you to suits only basic human essentials (369b-372c). Socrates argues one humans get into political lifestyle once the each one is perhaps not self-sufficient by nature. Each peoples have particular pure efficiency (370a) and you can starting just the single occupations one is definitely fitted to, is considered the most effective way to generally meet the needs of all of the the latest customers (370c). Glaucon stuff you to definitely Socrates’ town is too easy and calls they “a neighbor hood off pigs” (372d). Socrates refers to a local that allows to possess luxuries (“a great feverish town,” 372e-373e). Socrates points out that the lavish area will demand an armed forces to protect the town (373e). The latest military is comprising top-notch soldiers, the newest guardians, whom, such dogs, need to be gentle so you’re able to fellow residents and harsh so you can opponents (375c). The brand new guardians have to be knowledgeable carefully if you wish accomplish work regarding protecting the new city’s customers, statutes, and you will society really (376d). Poetry and you may tales should be censored to ensure including an enthusiastic degree (377b). Poetry is to: (i) expose brand new gods as good and just since factors that cause a beneficial (379a); (ii) since the unchanging fit (380d); (iii) just like the beings which avoid lays and you will deception (381e).
c. Book III
Socrates continues the political actions of one’s censorship away from poetry: (iv) the fresh new underworld really should not be portrayed once the a bad place so your guardians will never be too afraid of demise (386b); (v) the fresh heroes and you will gods should not be shown lamenting to ensure the guardians can develop courage (387e); (vi) poetry is always to stop folks from laughing violently (388e); (vii) poetry is to offer new guardian’s feeling of facts-informing but with the latest determination to help you rest if this is conducive to your an excellent of your area (389b); (viii) it has to offer thinking-abuse and obedience (389c-d); (ix) it should not is tales you to sign up to avarice (390d); (x) it has to not are reports you to definitely donate to hubris otherwise impiety (391a). Socrates progresses to discuss the way in which in which tales is be told (392d). The guy divides such as for instance ways into simple narration (from inside the third person) and imitative narration (in very first person, 392d). To save the guardians starting only work , Socrates argues that guardians can get simulate just what exactly is compatible for this (394e-395d). This new only city will be allow only modes and you will rhythms that fit the message regarding poetry anticipate from the just city (398b-399c). Socrates demonstrates to you how good art can result in the synthesis of a profile and also make somebody likely to follow its cause (400e-402c). Socrates converts towards physical education of the guardians and you can claims that it includes actual training that prepares them to own battle, a careful eating plan, and you can designs one to sign up to the fresh cures away from doctors (403c-405b). Physical studies would be aiimed at work with the newest heart in place of one’s body, as body always advantages in the event the soul is in a beneficial good shape, while the fresh new soul will not necessarily work for in the event that body is within the a beneficial updates (410b-c).